When we test a subject in school, not all students get the same marks. Some students succeed in getting full marks, some only get passing marks and there are some who are declared as fail. These latter students are awarded bitter and inappropriate titles such as dull-minded, incompetent and useless etc. on the basis of such results. But if these students are competed in another field, such as on the field of play, it is quite possible that the students who fail will perform better than the students who pass. And if so, what will we conclude from this time? Have students who failed the test become “intelligent” on the playground?
In fact, intelligence is a vast and imaginative thing, and not all experts agree on a single definition. According to some experts, intelligence refers to the ability to solve problems. Some see it as the ability to learn from everyday life and adapt. It is not possible for us to lift the lid of someone’s skull and look inside to decide how intelligent that person is. According to experts, there are many types of intelligence.
Multiple Intelligence Theory in the Classroom 2021
In this regard, the American psychologist Howard Gardner has presented an untouched concept, according to which the following eight types of intelligence:
People with linguistic intelligence are equipped with the ability to use language and words correctly. This use is not limited to speaking but also includes reading and writing. Such people think in words and their focus is on the structure of words, their sound, meaning and their use. Linguistic children are eager to read and write. He enjoys telling jokes and stories, playing a variety of word games, spelling words, listening to the radio, learning new languages and writing diaries. These children become part of society in the future as writers, poets, journalists, speakers, lawyers and storytellers.
Logical mathematical intelligence
People with this kind of intelligence can use numbers and logic in the best way. These people have scientific thinking and are experts in mathematical factors as well as have a good understanding of logical relationships or patterns. The favorite subject of this type of students is mathematics and their hobbies include solving puzzles, finding cause and effect, counting, new inventions, using calculator, telling time, playing games on computer or mobile, players. Or collecting team scores and statistics and ranking items. Examples of people with logical mathematical intelligence are scientists, engineers, accountants, mathematicians, etc.
Physical and kinetic intelligence
People with physical and kinetic intelligence specialize in expressing emotions using their whole body or parts of it. Such people can make things with their own hands and change them. They have the qualities of strength, flexibility, speed, balance, control, agility, endurance and harmony. Such students are interested in making a variety of models, participating in sports and dramas, climbing trees, imitating humans and animals, repairing broken objects, drawing and painting, calligraphy and embroidery. Surgeons, actors, athletes, mechanics, artists, sculptors, etc. are included in the list of people with physical and dynamic intelligence.
Visual and spatial intelligence
These types of people have 3D thinking. They can create three-dimensional images in their minds and move them. For example, such people can change the interior of a room in many ways without having to pick up furniture and other items. These people have more imagination. These pictures are smart and think in pictures. Such people are good at reading maps and finding their way in unfamiliar areas. Students with visual and spatial intelligence are interested in taking pictures and making videos, arranging rooms, making three-dimensional models from blocks, drawing and painting, making different things from clay, making cartoons on paper and solving visual puzzles. People with this intelligence include architects, inventors, interior designers, guides, hunters, artists, animators, cartographers, film directors, graphic designers, and so on.
Musical intelligence has to do with sound characteristics, fluctuations and its various types. Individuals in this category can recognize the pattern of the head, melody and melody and have the ability to use different musical instruments. Such students are eager to blow whistles, hum, and sing poems. Remember that this intelligence is not limited to playing musical instruments, but also the various sounds found in our everyday environment, such as the sounds of birds to the singing of lullabies, are also its subjects. Authors and poets enjoy the sound of their written words and phrases. Musicians, singers and songwriters are examples of such people.
Inner personal intelligence
With this kind of intelligence, we can take personal pictures. This intelligence helps us to recognize our strengths, weaknesses, weaknesses, desires and needs and adapt ourselves to them. People with this intelligence determine their future goals by learning from past experiences. They write diaries, make timetables, make a variety of lists, read books and magazines on self-help, Writes biographies and is usually solitary. The group includes psychologists, detectives, writers, poets, actors, advisors and leaders.
People with public intelligence can easily read the moods, needs and desires of others and respond accordingly. They can sense facial expressions, voice fluctuations and movements, and see things through the eyes of others. Such students are interested in administrative matters and learn well in groups. Teachers, mental health professionals, salespersons, mediators, therapists, psychologists and politicians are among the people with public intelligence.
Natural intelligence is related to the ability to identify and classify plants and animals and to understand the natural patterns found in the natural world. Such people can better understand the natural environment, ie nature is smart and are interested in natural phenomena such as the formation of clouds or the formation of mountains. Remember that natural intelligence was very important in ancient times because humans needed to hunt and grow crops to fill their stomachs. Plants were needed to make the medicine needed for healing. And all this would not have been possible without proper information about the natural environment. Farmers, gardeners, hunters, ecologists, botanists, astronomers and meteorologists are among the group of people endowed with natural intelligence.
It is noteworthy that Howard Gardner’s concept of multiple geniuses has been widely criticized in various quarters, especially in the scientific community, and many objections have been raised against it. But there is no doubt that this ideology has had a profound effect on the thinking and attitudes of educators and teachers and has broadened the concept of intelligence. Awareness of this concept requires that individual differences among students be taken into account in the planning and execution of the teaching process. Every child is different, every child is special and every child needs attention. The teacher should help them and each child should be given attention according to his needs.
Unfortunately, in our traditional teaching method, the emphasis is usually on linguistic and logical mathematical skills and they are considered to be the most important component of a student’s ability and success. But the teaching process should not be limited to just reading from textbooks and writing questions and answers on the black / white board, but different teaching methods should be adopted whenever a subject is to be taught. Not only words should be used but also pictures, charts, multimedia and movements should be included and appropriate teaching activities should be organized inside and outside the classroom with the students as the focus of the teaching. In this way students with different talents can be helped and connected to each student individually. It is also important to keep in mind that one should never try to use eight different types of intelligence at the same time in teaching each lesson, as it is not technically possible to do so.
Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence is a great tool for parents to know about a child’s abilities. Teachers should also use this theory to make the teaching process effective and comprehensive and to bring innovation and flexibility in it because if we have only a hammer in our hand then everything around us will start looking like a nail.